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Conceived and designed the experiments: All other relevant data are within the paper. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes.
This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect.
Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was on Ishigaki.
Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage.
This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess the relative success of sexual versus asexual lineages with an unusual morphology and life cycle. Asexual reproduction, in which offspring arise from a single female organism, occurs in a variety of eukaryotes including plants, fungi, and animals. It is assumed to confer some advantages over a sexual reproduction, in which individuals of two genders, females and males, must be involved but only females can give birth to new individuals [ 1 — 10 ].
Although a variety of theories have been proposed to explain Asexual reproduction non examples of elements genetic and ecological fitness associated with sexual reproduction, the evolution of sexuality and reproductive systems remains as one of the major unresolved puzzles in biology [ 4 ]. In particular, there are few examples that demonstrate the success and persistence of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in natural environments [ 1112 ].
Coccoideawhich include mealybugs Pseudococcidaeare interesting for studies of the evolution and ecology of sexuality and asexuality, because this taxon exhibits various systems that control sex determination, sexual development, sex ratio, and mode of reproduction [ 1314 ]. Such an extraordinary diversity of genetic systems is considered to be, at least partly, associated with their unusual morphology Fig 1 and life cycle [ 1315 ]. Scale insects are plant sap feeders closely related to aphids and whiteflies and are characterized by their unusual shapes.
Adult females show development with retention of juvenile physical characters neoteny and are relatively immobile, lacking wings and often even legs. They produce body-covering secretions that act like protective shells, and they can be long-lived sometimes up to several months [ 15 ]. In contrast, adult males are winged and mobile, but they are tiny and fragile and have a limited life span of a few days at most [ 1516 ].
Such extreme sexual dimorphism exposes the immobile females to high levels of competition over mate resources represented by the fragile and short-lived males [ 17 ], which may lead to the evolution of "Asexual reproduction non examples of elements" systems that depend less on males [ 14 ]. Asexual production non examples of elements.
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From the Asexual reproduction  is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes , and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
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